Operant Conditioning is used for feline behavior modification. To help you understand what that means, I've created a simple chart below. I only use Positive Reinforcement (+R) for training cats (any species) because it is the most effective and least erosive to your bond with the animal.
Examples of each of the quadrants:
+R Positive Reinforcement - Giving your cat a treat when he does something "good".
+P Positive Punishment - Spraying your cat with water when he does something "bad".
-R Negative Reinforcement - We use this in shelter work where a cat is afraid and hissing because it sees us as a threat. We wait for calm behavior and then back away, thus reinforcing "calm".
-P Negative Punishment - When the cat is doing something obnoxious, you take away your attention.
Another chart I created with a little more detail: